Academic standards list

Chemistry I — Science (2009-2018)

Introduction

Academic standards define the expectations for knowledge and skills that students are to learn in a subject by a certain age or at the end of a school grade level. This page contains a list of standards for a specific content area, grade level, and/or course. The list of standards may be structured using categories and sub-categories.

Embedded Inquiry

 
Standard INQ — Embedded Inquiry
 
Science is a relentless quest for understanding how the natural world works. All of science is driven by the premise that the world is capable of being understood. Yet, scientists believe that currently accepted explanations of natural phenomena or events are never perfect or fully complete and are always amenable to revision in light of new scientific evidence. Each scientific discipline uses its distinctive tools and techniques to investigate phenomena associated with the physical, geological, or living worlds. All rely upon theories from which the development of hypotheses emerge, the collection of data, and the interpretation of evidence as the foundation for reaching logical conclusions and making reasoned predictions.Conceptual StrandUnderstandings about scientific inquiry and the ability to conduct inquiry are essential for living in the 21st century.Guiding QuestionWhat tools, skills, knowledge, and dispositions are needed to conduct scientific inquiry?
 
Course Level Expectation
Recognize that science is a progressive endeavor that reevaluates and extends what is already accepted.
 
Design and conduct scientific investigations to explore new phenomena, verify previous results, test how well a theory predicts, and compare opposing theories.
 
Use appropriate tools and technology to collect precise and accurate data.
 
Apply qualitative and quantitative measures to analyze data and draw conclusions that are free of bias.
 
Compare experimental evidence and conclusions with those drawn by others about the same testable question.
 
Communicate and defend scientific findings.
 
State Performance Indicator
Select a description or scenario that reevaluates and/or extends a scientific finding.
 
Analyze the components of a properly designed scientific investigation.
 
Determine appropriate tools to gather precise and accurate data.
 
Evaluate the accuracy and precision of data.
 
Defend a conclusion based on scientific evidence.
 
Determine why a conclusion is free of bias.
 
Compare conclusions that offer different, but acceptable explanations for the same set of experimental data.
 

Embedded Mathematics

 
Standard MATH — Embedded Mathematics
 
Conceptual StrandScience applies mathematics to investigate questions, solve problems, and communicate findings.Guiding QuestionWhat mathematical skills and understandings are needed to successfully investigate biological topics?
 
Course Level Expectation
Understand the mathematical principles associated with the science of chemistry.
 
Utilize appropriate mathematical equations and processes to solve chemistry problems.
 
State Performance Indicator
Use real numbers to represent real-world applications (e.g., slope, rate of change, probability, and proportionality).
 
Perform operations on algebraic expressions and informally justify the selected procedures.
 
Interpret graphs that depict real-world phenomena.
 
Apply measurement unit relationships including Avogadros number, molarity, molality, volume, and mass to balance chemical equations.
 
Use concepts of mass, length, area, and volume to estimate and solve real-world problems.
 

Embedded Technology/Engineering

 
Standard T/E — Embedded Technology/Engineering
 
Scientific inquiry is fueled by the desire to understand the natural world; technological design is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems. Technology exerts a more direct effect on society than science because it is focused on solving human problems, helping humans to adapt to changes, and fulfilling goals and aspirations. The engineering design cycle describes the worklives of practicing engineers. The design cycle describes a series of activities that includes a background research, problem identification, feasibility analysis, selection of design criteria, prototype development, planning and design, production and product evaluation. Because there are as many variations of this model, practicing engineers do not adhere to a rigid step-by-step interpretation of this design cycle.Conceptual StrandSociety benefits when engineers apply scientific discoveries to design materials and processes that develop into enabling technologies.Guiding QuestionHow do science concepts, engineering skills, and applications of technology improve the quality of life?
 
Course Level Expectation
Explore the impact of technology on social, political, and economic systems.
 
Differentiate among elements of the engineering design cycle: design constraints, model building, testing, evaluating, modifying, and retesting.
 
Explain the relationship between the properties of a material and the use of the material in the application of a technology.
 
Describe the dynamic interplay among science, technology, and engineering within living, earth-space, and physical systems.
 
State Performance Indicator
Distinguish among tools and procedures best suited to conduct a specified scientific inquiry.
 
Evaluate a protocol to determine the degree to which an engineering design process was successfully applied.
 
Evaluate the overall benefit to cost ratio of a new technology.
 
Use design principles to determine if a new technology will improve the quality of life for an intended audience.
 

Atomic Structure

 
Standard 1 — Atomic Structure
 
Conceptual StrandAtomic theory is the foundation for understanding the interactions and changes in matter.Guiding QuestionHow does the structure of matter determine its chemical and physical properties?
 
Course Level Expectation
Compare and contrast historical models of the atom.
Analyze the organization of the modern periodic table.
Describe an atom in terms of its composition and electron characteristics.
State Performance Indicator
Compare and contrast the major models of the atom (e.g., Democritus, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, and the quantum mechanical model).
 
Compare and contrast the major models of the atom.
 
Interpret the periodic table to describe an elements atomic makeup.
 
Describe the trends found in the periodic table with respect to atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, or electronegativity.
 
Determine the Lewis electron-dot structure or number of valence electrons for an atom of any main-group element from its atomic number or position in the
 
Represent an electrons location in the quantum mechanical model of an atom in terms of the shape of electron clouds (s and p orbitals in particular), relative
 

Matter and Energy

 
Standard 2 — Matter and Energy
 
Conceptual StrandThe properties of matter determine how it interacts with energy.Guiding QuestionWhat is the relationship between matter and energy?
 
Course Level Expectation
Investigate the characteristic properties of matter.
Explore the interactions between matter and energy.
Apply the kinetic molecular theory to describe solids, liquids, and gases.
Investigate characteristics associated with the gaseous state.
Discuss phase diagrams of one-component systems.
State Performance Indicator
Distinguish among elements, compounds, solutions, colloids, and suspensions.
 
Identify properties of a solution: solute and solvent in a solid, liquid or gaseous solution; procedure to make or determine the concentration of a solution in
 
Classify a solution as saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated based on its composition and temperature and a solubility graph.
 
Classify a property of change in matter as physical, chemical, or nuclear.
 
Compare and contrast heat and temperature changes in chemical and physical processes.
 
Investigate similarities and differences among solids, liquids and gases in terms of energy and particle spacing.
 
Predict how changes in volume, temperature, and pressure affect the behavior of a gas.

Interactions of Matter

 
Standard 3 — Interactions of Matter
 
Conceptual StrandInteractions between matter generate substances with new physical and chemical properties.Guiding QuestionWhat types of interactions between matter generate new substances?
 
Course Level Expectation
Investigate chemical bonding.
Analyze chemical and nuclear reactions.
Explore the mathematics of chemical formulas and equations.
Explain the law of conservation of mass/energy.
State Performance Indicator
Analyze ionic and covalent compounds in terms of how they form, names, chemical formulas, percent composition, and molar masses.
 
Identify the reactants, products, and types of different chemical reactions: composition, decomposition, double replacement, single replacement, combustion.
 
Predict the products of a chemical reaction.
 
Balance a chemical equation to determine molar ratios.
 
Convert among the following quantities of a substance: mass, number of moles, number of particles, molar volume at STP.
 
Identify and solve stoichiometry problems: volume at STP to mass, moles to mass, and molarity.
 
Classify substances as acids or bases based on their formulas and how they react with various indicators.
 
Describe radioactive decay through a balanced nuclear equation and through an analysis of the half-life concept.
 
Compare and contrast nuclear fission and fusion.
 
Relate the laws of conservation of mass/energy to thermal changes that occur during physical, chemical or nuclear processes.
 
 
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