Tennessee Diploma Project
English Language Arts
From Guide To Inductive & Deductive Reasoning Induction vs. Deduction October, 2008, by The Critical Thinking Co.™ Staff Logic refers to the systematic study and application of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is the skill of correct thinking and conceptual development. It is the thinking through of similarities, comparisons, and differences in order to induce the correct general conclusions. Studying logic and practicing logical thinking prepares students for the development of reasoning. Logic is often divided into two parts: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The first is associated with drawing general conclusions from specific examples; the second involves drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms.Conceptual StrandLogic is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately in order to function successfully in society. Guiding QuestionHow is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately necessary to function successfully in school and the workplace?
Grade Level Expectation
Use logic to make inferences and draw conclusions in a variety of oral and written contexts.
Analyze text for fact-opinion, cause-effect, inferences, evidence, and conclusions.
Demonstrate an understanding of deductive and inductive reasoning.
Analyze written and oral communication for persuasive devices.
Explore the concept of premises, including false premises.
Explore the concept of logical fallacies.
Check For Understanding
Make logical predictions of future events in text.
Identify sequence of events in text.
Construct and complete analogies using synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, categories/subcategories, whole/part, functions, verb forms, rhymes, scrambled words, and…
Identify and analyze stated or implied cause/effect relationships in text.
Determine criteria for recognizing factual claim and opinion (e.g., scientific method, provability, quality of evidence, sources).
Determine the relevance and quality of evidence given to support or oppose an argument.
Compare and contrast evidence and conclusions between/among two or more arguments on the same topic.
Identify and analyze examples of deductive and inductive reasoning in text.
Identify and describe the structure of an argument, including its main claim and supporting premises.
Identify a variety of false premises, including those involving categorical claims (e.g., all mammals are human beings).
Identify the persuasive devices in written and oral communication (e.g., bandwagon, loaded terms, testimonial, name-calling, plain folks).
Explore common logical fallacies (e.g., appeal to fear, personal attack, false dilemma, false analogy) in a variety of texts.
Explore the concepts of stereotyping and bias.
State Performance Indicator
Recognize a reasonable prediction of future events of a given text.
Evaluate text for fact or opinion.
Analyze cause/effect relationships in text.
Identify examples of persuasive devices (i.e., bandwagon, loaded words, testimonial, name-calling, plain folks, snob appeal).
Choose a logical word to complete an analogy, using synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, categories/subcategories, whole/part, functions, verb forms, rhymes, scrambled…
Identify an example of deductive or inductive reasoning in text.
Identify a false premise in text.
Identify instances of bias and stereotyping in print and non-print texts.
Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence in text.