Academic Standard

Tennessee Diploma Project
English Language Arts
Grade range: 
No grade range
Research is the dynamic, attentive, and systematic process of inquiry to discover, interpret, or rework facts, events, behaviors, or theories. Additionally, it makes practical applications with the help of facts, laws, or theories. The term research is also used to describe the collection of information about a particular subject.Conceptual StrandEffective research is the ability to frame, to analyze, and to investigate solutions to problems, while building on and evaluating the credibility of existing research. Effective research leads to the formulation of questions and ultimately to the exploration of new ideas.Guiding QuestionHow does effective research enhance inquiry about any aspect of life?
Elements within this Standard
Grade Level Expectation
Define and narrow a problem or research topic.
Gather relevant information from a variety of print and electronic sources, as well as from direct observation, interviews, and surveys.
Make distinctions about the credibility, reliability, consistency, strengths, and limitations of resources, including information gathered from websites.
Write a research paper, using primary and secondary sources and technology and graphics, as appropriate.
Check For Understanding
Narrow a topic so that the research process is manageable and the controlling idea is focused.
Take and organize notes on what is known and what needs to be researched about the topic.
Focus on relevant information and/or theories.
Distinguish between primary and secondary sources, defining the characteristics of each and evaluating each for their benefits and limitations.
Choose among sources provided and those found independently based on the usefulness, credibility, and reliability of the sources.
Identify reasons for choosing one source over another, including those found on websites.
Identify the characteristics and limitations of source material.
Provide relevant research information to develop and support a complicated topic.
Analyze and interpret data in multiple forms (e.g., a bar or circle graph) on a familiar topic.
Collect evidence in various ways (e.g., gathering relevant reasons, examples, and facts; defining key terms and ideas; identifying relationships such as
Craft an introductory paragraph in which the thesis statement(s) clearly presents the topic of the documented essay.
Present a body of well-developed and specific facts and information pertinent to the topic, developed as a series of paragraphs which support the topic.
Connect ideas using a variety of transition strategies.
Create an effective organizing structure based on research information (e.g., description, problem-solution, question-answer, comparison-contrast, cause-effect).
Craft a conclusion in which closure is provided, such as by restating the topic and summarizing findings.
Acknowledge source material using a predetermined standard format (e.g., APA, MLA).
Understand the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing.
Quote, paraphrase, or summarize text, ideas, or other information taken from print or electronic sources.
Follow a standard format and use the appropriate technology to embed text graphics, including a title, contents page, numbered pages, and a bibliography.
Include effective graphics and illustrative material to support research ideas in the text.
State Performance Indicator
Select the most focused research topic.
Identify levels of reliability among resources (e.g., eyewitness account, newspaper account, supermarket tabloid account, Internet source)
Determine the most appropriate research source for a given research topic.
Distinguish between primary (i.e., interviews, letters, diaries, newspapers, personal narratives) and secondary (i.e., reference books, periodicals, Internet,
Discern irrelevant research material from written text.